With its coastline of 3,260 kilometers and an Economic Exclusion Zone of 1 million square kilometers, Vietnam is an ideal country to boast a strong seafood industry, including both aquaculture and open ocean fishing. Aquaculture and open ocean fishing. Aquaculture systems are diversified according to geographical and climatic conditions:
- Northen region is dominated by freshwater fish ponds, rice-cum-fish and marine cage culture.
- Centrel Region conentrates on the intensive culture of giant tiger prawn and the marine cage culture of fin fish or lobster.
- Southern region has the most diversified farming activities that include pond, fence and cage culture of catfish as well as several indigenous species such as snakehead fish and climbing perch and giant river prawn, various intensification levels of shrimp culture and integrated culture such as rice-cum-fish, rice-cum-prawn and mangrove-cum-aquaculture.
Key aquaculture sectors include pangasius, shrimp, tilapia and increasingly also bivalves and marine fishes such as cobia, seabass and groupper. Aquaculture is concentrated in the Mekong River Delta Provinces - accounting for around 75% and 80% respectively of the toal national pangasius and shrimp production.
Vietnam has a large potential for aquaculture with a total water surface area estimated above 1.7 million hectares, of which about 1 million hectares has now been exploited for aquaculture.